M.A. (Gold medalist, Punjab 1962), M.A., Ph.D. (1973) McGill University, Canada has formerly held the following positions in Pakistan and abroad: Director General, Islamic Research Institute, International Islamic University, Islamabad;  Chairman, Council of Islamic Ideology, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad; Professor, Islamic Law, Leiden University, the Netherlands and Academic Director of ISIM, Leiden; Senior Lecturer,  Centre for Islamic Legal Studies, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Distinguished Professor, Faculty of Law, International Islamic University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and Visiting Professor, Collège de France, Paris.
He has published extensively on Islamic law, contemporary issues, and on trends in the Muslim societies. Some of his publications are: Shatibi’s Philosophy of Islamic Law (1995), Iqbal’s Reconstruction of Ijtihad (1995), Islamic Legal Interpretation: The Muftis and their Fatwas, Co-edited with Brinkley Messick and David Powers (Harvard, 1996), (Edited Volume) Islamic Laws and Women in the Modern World (1996), (Edited Volume) Travelers in Faith, Studies on TablighiJama’at (Brill, Leiden 2000), Mafahim-i Qur’an, Urdu Translation of T. Izutsu’sEthical Terms in the Qur’an (2005),  Dispensing Justice in Islam, Qadis and Their Judgments, Co-edited with David S. Powers and Ruud Peters (Brill,  2006), (Edited Volume)  AthharwinSadiIsawi men BarriSaghir men IslamiFikrkeRahnuma in Urdu (IRI, 2008), and Islam and Modernity, an Introduction to key issues and debates, co-edited with Armando Salvatore and Martin van Bruinessen (University of Edinburgh Press, 2009),  Nuqushe Tagore(Translation of Tagore’s Fire Flies, 2012),  Shari’a Today: Essays on Contemporary Issues and Debates in Muslim Societies (Iqbal Institute for Research and Dialogue, 2013) and  Ummat Muslima dahshatgardikegradab men (Narrative 2015).